Variations in Facial Anthropometric Measurements among Major Ethnic Groups in Nigeria: A 3-Dimentional Stereophotogrammetry Analysis

Adegbayi Adeola Adekunle (Lead / Corresponding author), Abiodun Yusuff Olowo, Moses Adetona, Olutayo James, Olawale Olatubosun Adamson, Failat Olushola Agbogidi, Afisu Oladega, Mobolanle Ogunlewe, Wasiu Lanre Adeyemo, Tamara Busch, Peter A. Mossey, Mary L. Marazita, Azeez Butali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The aim of the study is to highlight variations in facial anthropometric measurements among the major ethnic groups in Nigeria using 3D photogrammetry. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Lagos, Nigeria. Acquisition of 3D facial photographs was done using a Vectra H1 portable 3D photogrammetry imaging system. Descriptive analysis of collected data was done and a test of associations performed using independent samples t-test. The level of significance was set at <.05. 

Results: The total number of participants in this study was 503. The study population was made up of 302 (60%) males and 201 (40%) females. Mean upper facial height among Yoruba, Igbo, Hausa, and other ethnic groups were 68.93 ± 5.85, 70.18 ± 5.99, 63.79 ± 4.80, and 69.29 ± 5.95 mm respectively, while mean interpupillary distances were 66.99 ± 3.70, 67.34 ± 3.56, 66.73 ± 3.80, and 67.09 ± 3.72 mm respectively. A Tukey posthoc test revealed significant pairwise differences for upper facial height between the Yoruba and Hausa population with a mean difference of 5.15 mm (P <.001, 95% CI 2.94-7.35) (P <.001, 95% CI 2.94-7.35), and Hausa and Igbo population with a mean difference of 6.39 mm (P <.001, 95% CI 3.75-9.03). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed the presence of significant inter-ethnic differences between Hausa ethnic group and the Yoruba ethnic group for midfacial height (P <.001), upper lip height (P =.004), lower lip height (P =.003), total face height (P =.010), and orbital fissure width (P <.001). 

Conclusion: The result of this study shows that distinct difference does exist in the facial anthropological measurements between the ethnicities included in this study especially in vertical facial measurements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)236-243
Number of pages8
Issue number3
Early online date4 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • 3D photogrammetry
  • facial anthropometry
  • Vectra 3D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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