Virtopsy shows a high status funerary treatment in an early 18th Dynasty non-royal individual

Robert D. Loynes (Lead / Corresponding author), Philippe Charlier, Philippe Froesch, Tobias M. R. Houlton, Rudy Lallo, Giancarlo Di Vella, Raffaella Bianucci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This work presents the multidisciplinary investigation of the head of Nebiri (Museo Egizio, Turin S_5109), Chief of Stables, a high status elite person from the 18th Dynasty involving MDCT, 3D brain surface and facial reconstructions accompanied by a consideration of previously presented chemical analysis of the embalming materials found in fragments of bandages used on the head and viscera (lung) found in one of the four canopic jars. Comparison of the techniques used for the cosmetic treatment of Nebiri with those used in other elite and high status non-royal persons confirms the validity of the use of the term “high status elite” in the case of Nebiri. This case highlights the importance of using modern forensic techniques both to enhance new technologies of retrospective diagnosis on altered human remains and to increase knowledge of past populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)302-311
Number of pages10
JournalForensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Issue number3
Early online date7 Jun 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2017


  • 3D brain surface reconstruction
  • 3D facial approximation
  • Human remains
  • MDCT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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