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Background: Vascular calcification, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is common among patients with CKD and is an independent contributor to increased vascular stiffness and vascular risk in this patient group. Vitamin K is a cofactor for proteins involved in prevention of vascular calcification. Whether or not vitamin K supplementation could improve arterial stiffness in patients with CKD is unknown.
Methods: To determine if vitamin K supplementation might improve arterial stiffness in patients in CKD, we conducted a parallel-group, double-blind, randomized trial in participants aged 18 or older with CKD stage 3b or 4 (eGFR 15-45 ml/min per 1.73 m 2). We randomly assigned participants to receive 400 mg oral vitamin K2 or matching placebo once daily for a year. The primary outcome was the adjusted between-group difference in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included augmentation index, abdominal aortic calcification, BP, physical function, and blood markers of mineral metabolism and vascular health. We also updated a recently published meta-analysis of trials to include the findings of this study.
Results: We included 159 randomized participants in the modified intention-to-treat analysis, with 80 allocated to receive vitamin K and 79 to receive placebo. Mean age was 66 years, 62 (39%) were female, and 87 (55%) had CKD stage 4. We found no differences in pulse wave velocity at 12 months, augmentation index at 12 months, BP, B-type natriuretic peptide, or physical function. The updated meta-analysis showed no effect of vitamin K supplementation on vascular stiffness or vascular calcification measures.
Conclusions: Vitamin K2 supplementation did not improve vascular stiffness or other measures of vascular health in this trial involving individuals with CKD.
- Vitamin K
- Chronic kidney disease
- Vascular calcification
- Arterial stiffness