This article analyses the relationship between stigmatization, violence and marginality and its limits to social justice and citizenship. It involves a critical reflection on the way groups living in a social and symbolical shade are represented and treated by governments and their institutions, and the way such practices reinforce a cycle of socio-symbolical marginality and the limits to life in the city. For that the article will explore the findings of a research within drug gangs in which I have been involved (Silva and Urani, 2002, Observatório de Favelas, 2006; Silva et al, 2009), and my own research on violence, urban marginality and stigmatization (Fernandes, 2009; Fernandes, 2012).
- Drug traffic gangs
- Urban segregation