Evaluating Electricity Deployment through Regulatory Systems and the Worldwide Governance Indicators in Post-conflict countries
: A Comparison of Rwanda and Burundi

  • Desire Ruragaragaza

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


The independent regulatory model has been instrumental and applied in different developed and developing countries in the electricity sector. Reforms initiated through this regulatory model have been evaluated in different peaceful countries using an evaluation questionnaire to ascertain whether the reforms help or hinder the sector outcomes. In addition, the rule of law worldwide governance indicator has been considered as the most important indicator to measure the level of commitment and capacity to carry out the required reforms. The more a country improves its rule of law, the more it is committed and capable of implementing the independent regulatory model and the electricity sector thereof.

Countries emerging from war face numerous challenges that affect the very key pillars of the independent regulatory model, the investment attractiveness, and the electricity sector outcomes. However, little is known about the independent regulatory model’s effect in post-conflict developing countries in need of electricity investment.

This thesis, in addition to the rule of law and the existing evaluation questionnaire, uses for the first time the political stability and absence of violence/terrorism Worldwide Governance Indicator to analyse the two indicators’ implications with respect to the electricity regulation in post conflict countries. In addition, it looks at the regulatory implications on electricity in a post-conflict environment and shines light on effective electricity indicators in post-conflict environment. In a comparative study approach, this thesis focuses on Burundi and Rwanda, two countries that share the same characteristics, use the independent regulatory model but took different paths to improving the rule of law and the political stability and absence of violence indicators. It shows that instability and an unpredictable political environment affect the rule of law, institutional governance, institutional substance and the meta-principles, and standards required to build a strong independent regulatory model capable of producing good regulatory outcomes.

Key words: Burundi, Rwanda, rule of law, political stability and absence of violence/Terrorism, policy, legislation, independent regulatory model, and electricity deployment.
Date of Award2022
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorStephen Dow (Supervisor) & Peter Cameron (Supervisor)


  • Burundi
  • Rwanda
  • rule of law
  • political stability and absence of violence/Terrorism
  • policy
  • legislation
  • independent regulatory model
  • electricity deployment

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