Individual and Work Environment Factors that Influence Nursing Faculties’ Well-being, Engagement and Intention to Remain

  • Alya Atiah M. Alghamdi

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


Background: Saudi Arabian higher education institutions are facing major problems in retaining nursing faculty members. The reasons for this are unclear and there is limited literature specific to the Middle East and Saudi Arabia.

Methods/Design: This current study adopted a mixed methods approach (sequential, explanatory) to understand the factors that contribute to the retention of nursing staff in higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia. This research was carried out in four phases–two scoping and a systematic review (in phase one); followed by pilot work (phase two); a cross-sectional study (phase three) and finally focus groups (phase four). Participants for the cross-sectional study were recruited from five governmental colleges of nursing and from two of these colleges for the focus groups. The participants were academic nursing faculty staff.

Results and Findings: The reviews identified a range of personal and work-based factors and the Job Demand-Resources model as a potential theoretical model. Pilot study results informed the cross-sectional study by testing recruitment strategies, and the applicability of questionnaires in the Saudi context. A range of standardised questionnaires representing key concepts of the JD-R model were used. Univariate analyses identified a range of between group differences with men having less burnout, and higher job satisfaction, Saudi nationals had poorer stress outcomes and were less engaged than non-Saudis, and older participants and those with longer experience in academia had better stress outcomes and were more engaged. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that job demands, and female gender predicted stress outcomes and job and personal resources predicted work engagement and commitment. The focus groups highlighted that the role of culture, gender and nationality are important in dealing with work stress and factors related to intention to remain.

Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of resources and the motivational arm of the JD-R model in predicting intention to remain. The influence of job demands is important but less so than that of resources. Recommendations therefore focus mainly on the provision of resources for the individual, work environment and organisation with some attention given to promoting a manageable workload, and role clarity.
Date of Award2021
Original languageEnglish
SponsorsKing Saud University
SupervisorJanice Rattray (Supervisor) & Linda McSwiggan (Supervisor)

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