Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Processing of Metals and Welding of Metal-Glass Nanocomposites

  • Guang Tang

    Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


    In this thesis, nanosecond pulsed lasers are used as the tools to generate microstructures on metal and glass. The applications of these structures are described too. The production of micro structures is demonstrated using diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) Nd:YVO4 lasers operating at wavelengths of 532nm or 1064 nm. The laser fluence and scanning speed are important parameters to control the results.
    The first part of thesis is on the laser generation of microstructures on metal surfaces. Copper (Cu) and titanium (Ti) have been studied. According to the reflectivity of metals, Cu is processed by a 532nm laser and Ti is processed by a 1064nm laser. It is shown that the periods of surface microstructures are highly dependent on the hatch distance (overlapping distance between laser scanning). Only if the laser fluence is greater than a threshold, may the microstructures on metals be induced. The thresholds are measured by the diameters of ablated areas at different fluence.
    Laser generated surface microstructures have been applied to modify the reflectivity of a Cu sample. It was found that laser induced surface microstructures on Copper can decrease the surface reflectivity by almost 97% between 250 nm and 700 nm.
    To find the mechanism of how to form microstructure on metal surface with laser, laser ablation and heating models have been studied. The 1D ablated numerical model is calculated in Matlab. The pressure of metal vapour is an important parameter, as it pushes the melted metal out of surface to form microstructures after re-solidification.
    The second part of thesis is on glass welding with microstructures on glass surfaces. The soda-lime glasses containing silver nanoparticles (from the company Codixx) have been studied and welded with Schott B270 glass. Compared with other techniques for welding glass, lasers offer the advantage of a relatively simple and flexible technique for joining the local area underneath the cover glass. Most of the laser energy is deposited in the Ag nanoparticle layer because of the large absorption coefficient at 532 nm. Expanded microstructures generated by the laser are applied to fill the gap between the glass surfaces. This is attributed to the formation of bubbles in the Ag nanoparticle layer after laser processing. The welded samples have the joint strength of 4.9 MPa and have great potential for industrial applications.
    A 3D analytical model is used to estimate the temperature of the glass after the laser pulse. The increase in temperature is about 129 °C. To induce the bubble in glass, many laser pulses are necessary. This is very different from the results for the metals.
    Date of Award2014
    Original languageEnglish
    SupervisorAmin Abdolvand (Supervisor) & William Gillespie (Supervisor)


    • Laser process
    • Microstructure
    • glass welding
    • Laser materials processing

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