Prediction of Naso-labial Morphology from Dental Pattern Assessments

  • Amal Aqeel Odeh Albtoosh

    Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


    This project aims to develop standards to predict vermillion border shape and appearance-i.e. the outline of the vermillion border and the fullness of lips, based on assessment of an individual dental pattern using a combination of three methods: morphological, cephalometric and GMM. This study tests a hypothesis that the skeletal and dental pattern in antero-posterior and vertical dimensions and the upper and the lower incisor inclinations can predict the morphology of the soft tissue of the lips. This hypothesis was examined by analysing retrospective facial data, which consists of two-dimensional, pre-orthodontic treatment photographs and cephalograms of individuals of four malocclusion classes: Class I, Class II: divisions 1 and 2, and Class III from two sample populations: 56 Scottish and 56 Jordanians, aged 11-14 years. All the Scottish participants had been recipients of treatment at the Dental Hospital at the University of Dundee, and the Jordanian sample were selected from the Orthodontic archive held by Jordan University Hospital.

    The results reveal that a cephalogram analysis offers a statistically significant correlation differing from one type of malocclusion to another, in addition, analysis of cephalograms showing the value of angles and linear dimensions differed from one type of malocclusion to another. Photographic analysis using GMM afforded a statistically reliable correlation between naso-labial traits, and particularly between the vermillion border outline and malocclusion patterns. Due to their shared ancestry (Caucasian), both Jordanian and Scottish populations showed the same morphological trends for the lips, for example: long lower facial height, a deep philtrum, V-shaped Cupid’s bow, thin upper vermillion border. GMM results suggest that vermillion border variation could be computed, at least when distinguishing between malocclusion classes from the same ethnic group. Morphological, GMM, and cephalograms analyses confirmed that the shape and diversity in the Vermillion XIV border outline differed between malocclusion classes, but few or no differences could be shown between the sexes
    Date of Award2016
    Original languageEnglish
    SupervisorPeter Mossey (Supervisor) & Caroline Wilkinson (Supervisor)


    • Forensic reconstruction
    • Malocclusion
    • Dental pattern
    • Naso-labial
    • GMM
    • Lips shape

    Cite this